## Wednesday, October 21, 2020

### A Tip for HiZ SSR - Parametric 't' Tracing

HiZ tracing for screen space reflections is an optimization where the search is done using a hierarchial Z-Buffer (typically stashed in a mip-chain) - the search can take larger skips when the low-res Z buffer indicates that there could not possibly be an occluder. This changes each trace from O(N) to O(logN).

The technique was published in GPU Pro 5, but as best I can tell, the author found out after writing the article that he couldn't post working sample code. The result is a tough chapter to make heads or tales of, because some parts of the algorithm simply say "see the sample code".  This forum thread is actually pretty useful, as is this.

The article builds a ray that is described parametrically in "Z" space, starting at the near clip plane (0.0 screen-space Z, must be a DX programmer ;-) and going out to 1.0.

If your app runs using reverse-float Z and you reverse this (starting the march at 1 and going in the -Z direction), you're going to get a ton of precision artifacts.  The reason: our march has the lowest precision at the start of the march.  In reverse-float Z there's a lot of hyper-Z (screen-space) depth "wasted" around the near clip plane - that's okay because it's the 'good' part of our float range, which gets better with distance. But in our case, it's going to make our ray testing a mess.

The technique is also presented tracing only near occluders and tracing only away from the camera - this is good if you view a far away mountain off a lake but not good if you view a building through a puddle from nearly straight down.

As it turns out, all of these techniques can be addressed with one restructure: parametrically tracing the ray using a parametric variable "t" instead of the actual Z buffer.

In this modification, the beginning of the ray cast is always at t = 0.0, and the end of the ray-cast (a full Z unit away) is always at t = 1.0, regardless of whether that is in the positive or negative Z direction - our unit is normalized so that its Z magnitude is either +1.0 or -1.0, which saves us a divide when intersecting with Z planes.

What does this solve?  A few things:

1. The algorithm has high precision at the beginning of the trace because t has small magnitude - we want this for accurate tracing of close occluders and odd angles.
2. The algorithm is fully general whether the ray is cast toward or away from the camera - no conditional code inside the search loop.  Lower 't' is always "sooner" in the ray cast.
3. We can now march around an occluder if we can attribute a min and max depth to it, by seeing if the range of t within a search cell overlaps the range of t in our min-max Z buffer.  This is fully general for "in front" and "behind" a cast and for "toward" and "away".
I didn't see any mention of changing the parameterization in my web searching, nor did I see anyone else complaining about the precision loss from reverse-Z (it took me a good day or two to realize why my floating point was underperforming on that one) so I figured I'd put it out there.